A communication disorder is any abnormality in speech, language, or hearing processes that results in an inefficient exchange of information. Communication disorders can affect a person’s ability to understand or produce speech, as well as their ability to understand or use written language.
What are the 5 Communication Disorders?
The five main types of communication disorders are:
- Speech disorders affect the production of speech sounds. Examples of speech disorders include stuttering, lisping, and cluttering.
- Language disorders affect the understanding or use of language. Examples of language disorders include expressive language disorder, receptive language disorder, and language delay.
- Hearing disorders affect the ability to hear sounds. Examples of hearing disorders include conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss.
- Voice disorders affect the quality of a person’s voice. Examples of voice disorders include hoarseness, vocal nodules, and vocal polyps.
- Communication disorders due to neurological conditions affect the ability to communicate as a result of a neurological condition, such as autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury.
What are Examples of Communication Disorders?
Here are some examples of communication disorders:
- Stuttering is a speech disorder that is characterized by involuntary repetitions, prolongations, and blocks of sounds, syllables, or words.
- Lisping is a speech disorder that is characterized by the incorrect production of the “s” and “z” sounds.
- Cluttering is a speech disorder that is characterized by rapid, jerky speech that is often accompanied by repetitions, revisions, and interjections.
- Expressive language disorder is a language disorder that is characterized by difficulty using language to express oneself. People with expressive language disorder may have difficulty using grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure correctly.
- Receptive language disorder is a language disorder that is characterized by difficulty understanding language. People with receptive language disorder may have difficulty understanding spoken or written language, as well as nonverbal cues.
- Language delay is a language disorder that is characterized by delayed development of language skills. People with language delay may reach language milestones later than their peers, but they eventually catch up.
- Conductive hearing loss is a hearing loss that is caused by a problem in the outer or middle ear. Conductive hearing loss can be caused by earwax, fluid in the middle ear, or damage to the eardrum or ossicles.
- Sensorineural hearing loss is a hearing loss that is caused by a problem in the inner ear or auditory nerve. Sensorineural hearing loss can be caused by aging, noise exposure, or certain medications.
- Mixed hearing loss is a hearing loss that is caused by a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
- Hoarseness is a voice disorder that is characterized by a rough, raspy voice. Hoarseness can be caused by vocal abuse, overuse, or certain medical conditions, such as laryngitis or vocal nodules.
- Vocal nodules are noncancerous growths that form on the vocal cords. Vocal nodules can cause hoarseness, breathiness, and a weak voice.
- Vocal polyps are noncancerous growths that form on the vocal cords. Vocal polyps can cause hoarseness, breathiness, and a weak voice.
- Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. People with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
- Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect movement and coordination. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty with speech, balance, and coordination.
- Traumatic brain injury is an injury to the brain that can cause a variety of problems, including communication difficulties.
What are the Major Characteristics of Communication Disorders?
The major characteristics of communication disorders vary depending on the type of disorder. However, some common characteristics include:
- Difficulties with speech production
- Difficulties with language comprehension
- Difficulties with language production
- Difficulties with hearing
- Difficulties with voice production
- Difficulties with social communication
What Causes Communication Disorders?
The causes of communication disorders vary depending on the type of disorder. However, some common causes include:
- Environmental factors
- Medical conditions
- Developmental delays